An electronic countermeasure (ECM) is an electrical or electronic device composed to deceive or swindle the radar, like infrared (IR) or lasers, sonar or other detection systems. It may be used both to defend and to offend to refute targeting information to an enemy. The system can deceive the enemy by showing them faulty targets or increased number of the target. The system may make many separate targets appear to the enemy, or make the real target appear to disappear or move about randomly. Electronic countermeasures system is used to protect aircraft from guided missiles efficiently. It has also been deployed by military ships and recently on some advanced tanks to fool laser/IR guided missiles. This system is often combined with stealth advances so that the ECM systems have an easier job. Offensive ECM often takes the form of jamming. The defensive part of ECM includes using blip enhancement and jamming of missile terminal homers.
The basic electronic countermeasure device was invented in the Second World War and used by all military aircraft nowadays. It is known as chaff which consists of extremely small strands (or dipoles) of an aluminum-coated crystalline silica core. Chaff initially forms a momentary radar reflective cloud and then disperses in the air and eventually drifts to the ground when it is released from an aircraft.
The global electronic warfare market is being driven by several factors such as ongoing development in the electromagnetic spectrum and increasing transnational disputes. Further, the growth in taking up of visual and infrared technology in defense is also aiding to the growth of electronic warfare globally. Furthermore, the rising concern of transnational disputes and cross-border terrorism has resulted into the requirement for constant surveillance of the territories. Adding, the requirement for real-time information is needed to safeguard the national borders round the clock. Implementation of electronic warfare is helping with catering to the demand for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) capabilities. Besides this, electronic warfare also helps in providing situational awareness to the defense forces during transnational disputes. Furthermore, the constant upgradation of the defense capabilities by developing nations like India and China is expected to surge the demand for electronic warfare during the forecast period.
However, there are certain factors limiting the growth of the market. There is a decrease in the defense budget in developed regions like North America and Europe, which is pulling the demand for electronic warfare by defense agencies. Further, the current electronic warfare systems are not equipped to tackle multiple threats. Hence, in times of major unrest, the system will not be effective. This is another factor limiting the demand for electronic warfare presently. Furthermore, the cost of implementing the system is high, which is acting as a restraint for the market currently. Instead of this, ongoing technological innovation in the electromagnetic spectrum is expected to reduce the cost of these systems in future.
EW equipment is advancing in its functionality, owing to the progression in algorithms and underlying software that impart operational capabilities to the EW systems. The advanced RF jamming technology is developed by the researchers at GTRI (Georgia Tech Research Institute), where the jammer uses Digital Radio Frequency Memory (DRFM) and has an open architecture. The project is called Angry Kitten, and it aims to develop an improved adaptability jammer.
The use of man-portable jamming devices is gaining popularity in EW. As the use of IEDs has increased in recent times, improved countermeasures, such as man-portable jamming devices, are being used by ground troops. IED attacks by Pakistani Army and militants prompted the troops of the Indian Army along the Line of Control to be equipped with portable jammers.
In November 2015, the US Marine Corps awarded a contract worth about USD 73.2 million to the Sierra Nevada to provide 581 units of the latest version of portable EW systems that can block IEDs and perform offensive operations against enemy communications. The EW systems called Modi II can be carried in backpacks and used over platforms such as vehicles, fixed sites, and aircraft. They provide threat identification and monitoring during intelligence and threat neutralization missions.
The opportunities in the market are huge because of the following factors such as increased system reliability and efficiency due to traveling-wave tube-based solutions, development of electronic warfare capabilities for civil aviation, deployment of electronic warfare capabilities on a space platform, development of EW Systems With enhanced capabilities
The global Electronic Countermeasures market is studied across: North America, Europe, Asia Pacific and LMAEA (Latin America, Middle East and Africa). Defense budget cut in the U.S. and Europe is expected to pose a challenge to electronic warfare market growth over the forecast period. Further, economic concerns in developing regions may also hinder the market. The demand to achieve faster and efficient systems with an ability to reduce time lag provides avenues for market growth.
Major types of electronic warfare include Electronic Counter Measures (ECM), Electronic Counter-Counter Measures (ECCM) and Electronic Support Measures (ESM). North America is estimated to lead the electronic warfare market in upcoming years. The North America region is estimated to be one of the large regions in electronic warfare market in upcoming years. Countries in this region include the US and Canada. The US has the world's highest military budget as given by CIA and a large amount of its military spending goes into procuring electronic warfare systems. This factor contributes to the large market share of North America in the electronic warfare market.
• Unmanned platforms
By Product type:
• Direct energy,
• Directional infrared counter measures
• Integrated suits
• Gallium nitride (GAN),
• Silicon and gallium arsenide (GAAS)
• RCIED jammers,
• Direction finders,
• Radio frequency jammers
• Vehicle self-protection systems
The prominent players in the market are Bae Systems, Boeing, Elbit Systems, General Dynamics, Harris, Israel Aerospace Industries, L3 Technologies, Leonardo, Lockheed Martin, Raytheon, Rockwell Collins.