Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious bacterial infection usually caused due to pathogenic bacteria Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB). Tuberculosis generally affects the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body. The symptoms of active TB are chronic cough with blood-containing sputum, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. This occurs to the patient in latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), which is highly contagious. If left untreated, about 10% of latent infections progress to active disease and kills about half of those infected. To prevent further contagion, reduce the disease burden and eradicate the disease, the WHO has recently issued and expanded its guidelines for screening high-risk individuals and treating them for LTBI as an effective tool.
There are two types of tests for TB infection: the TB skin test, also known as Mantoux tuberculin skin test (TST) and the TB blood test.
In the TB skin test, a small amount of fluid (called tuberculin) is injected into the skin on the lower part of the arm. If the arm is swelled, further tests need to be performed to confirm the TB disease. This is called the positive skin test. If the person’s body did not react to the test, it means that the TB disease is unlikely. For children under the age of five, this skin test is the preferred.
TB blood tests approved by U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are the QuantiFERON®–TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT-GIT) and the T-SPOT®.TB test (T-Spot). They are also known as interferon-gamma release assays or IGRAs. In this test, a patient’s blood is drawn which is sent to the laboratory for further analysis. If the blood doesn’t react to the test, its TB disease is unlikely, but if the blood test is positive then additional tests need to be performed.
Factors Influencing Market Growth:
According to World Health Organization (WHO), 10.4 million new cases of active TB were registered across the world and 1.3 million deaths from TB in 2016. Currently, one-third of the world's population is thought to be infected with TB. Every year, new infections occur in about 1% of the population. More than 95% of deaths occurred in developing countries and more than 50% in India, China, Indonesia, Pakistan, and the Philippines. By the tuberculin test, about 80% of people in many Asian and African countries test positive while 5–10% of people in the United States population test positive.
Rising incidences of tuberculosis is one of the important drivers for Tuberculosis Testing Market. Growing awareness about tuberculosis will further drive the growth of the market. In addition, R & D initiatives, technological advancements, and improved healthcare facilities are the key factors fueling the growth of the market. Increase in support of government and non- governmental organizations is expected to fuel industry demand. However, the hybrid technique of multiple disorder detection is the major restraining factor hampering the growth of Tuberculosis Testing market.
Depending upon the geographical analysis, the market includes major four regions such as North America, Europe, Asia Pacific (APAC), and Latin America, Middle East & Africa (LAMEA). In the Asia Pacific region, China and India are expected to witness the fastest growing tuberculosis markets. As per WHO report, India and China alone have 5 million of tuberculosis patients. Some of the key driving factors in the emerging countries are a large pool of patients, rising government funding and increased R&D investment. North America is also expected to dominate the market owing to homeless shelters, jails or some nursing homes, which fuel the growth of the market in this region.
The global Tuberculosis Testing market comprises some of the key players such as Abbott Laboratories, Alere, Inc., Becton, Dickinson and Company, bioMérieux SA, Hologic, Inc., Cepheid Epistem Plc., F. Hoffmann-La Roche, Ltd., Hain Lifescience GmbH, QIAGEN, Sanofi, and Thermo Fisher Scientific among others.
• In May 2018, The World Health Organization (WHO) published the first edition of the Model List of Essential In-Vitro Diagnostics (EDL). QIAGEN welcomed the First Edition of WHO’s Essential Diagnostics List. It endorses the use of interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) for the diagnosis of latent TB infection. Health organizations including WHO, US Centers for Disease Control (CDC), the International Panel Physicians Association (IPPA) have recommended inclusion of IGRA’s, for instance, QuantiFERON-TB Gold Plus. As an alternative to tuberculin skin tests, QuantiFERON-TB Gold (QFT) is one of two recommended tests in the WHO guidelines. QFT plus is the latest version of QFT test which has potential in identifying at-risk adults at greater risk of progressing to active TB.
• A research study was conducted by Georgies Mgode, a zoonotic disease scientist, and his team. Trained rats increase pediatric TB detection and could help in addressing the pediatric TB diagnosis challenges. The study was conducted in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Based on about 55,000 sputum samples from Tanzanian clinics examined by trained rats between 2011 and 2015. Microscopy detected TB in 8,351 samples. The rats detected more than 2,745. By standard methods, later they were verified. Samples from young kids, who often cough up less phlegm for testing and have low bacterial counts, the rats did exceptionally well on those samples. The article was published by Pediatric Research in April 2018. The TB-sniffing rat program is an ongoing research project.
Tuberculosis Testing Market Segmentation
By Test Type:
• Culture Based Tests
• Drug Susceptibility Testing (DST)
• Mantoux Test (Tuberculin Skin Test)
• Nucleic Acid Testing
• Radiography (Chest X-Ray)
• Smear Microscopy
• Other Tests (Serological Tests, IGRA, ADA, etc.)
o North America
Rest of Europe
Rest of Asia-Pacific
Rest of LAMEA